Elon Musk

Elon Musk

Musk in 2022
Elon Reeve Musk

(1971-06-28) June 28, 1971 (age 52)
Pretoria, Transvaal, South Africa
  • South Africa
  • Canada
  • United States
EducationUniversity of Pennsylvania (BA, BS)
  • (m. 2000; div. 2008)
  • (m. 2010; div. 2012)
    (m. 2013; div. 2016)
FamilyMusk family

Elon Reeve Musk (/ˈlɒn/ EE-lon; born June 28, 1971) is a businessman and investor. He is the wealthiest person in the world, with an estimated net worth of US$222 billion as of December 2023, according to the Bloomberg Billionaires Index, and $244 billion according to Forbes, primarily from his ownership stakes in Tesla and SpaceX.[5][6] He is the founder, chairman, CEO, and chief technology officer of SpaceX; angel investor, CEO, product architect and former chairman of Tesla, Inc.; owner, chairman and CTO of X Corp.; founder of the Boring Company and xAI; co-founder of Neuralink and OpenAI; and president of the Musk Foundation.

A member of the wealthy South African Musk family, Elon was born in Pretoria and briefly attended the University of Pretoria before immigrating to Canada at age 18, acquiring citizenship through his Canadian-born mother. Two years later, he matriculated at Queen's University at Kingston in Canada. Musk later transferred to the University of Pennsylvania, and received bachelor's degrees in economics and physics. He moved to California in 1995 to attend Stanford University. However, Musk dropped out after two days and, with his brother Kimbal, co-founded online city guide software company Zip2. The startup was acquired by Compaq for $307 million in 1999, and, that same year Musk co-founded X.com, a direct bank. X.com merged with Confinity in 2000 to form PayPal.

In October 2002, eBay acquired PayPal for $1.5 billion, and that same year, with $100 million of the money he made, Musk founded SpaceX, a spaceflight services company. In 2004, he became an early investor in electric vehicle manufacturer Tesla Motors, Inc. (now Tesla, Inc.). He became its chairman and product architect, assuming the position of CEO in 2008. In 2006, Musk helped create SolarCity, a solar-energy company that was acquired by Tesla in 2016 and became Tesla Energy. In 2013, he proposed a hyperloop high-speed vactrain transportation system. In 2015, he co-founded OpenAI, a nonprofit artificial intelligence research company. The following year, Musk co-founded Neuralink—a neurotechnology company developing brain–computer interfaces—and the Boring Company, a tunnel construction company. In 2022, he acquired Twitter for $44 billion. He subsequently merged the company into newly created X Corp. and rebranded the service as X the following year. In March 2023, he founded xAI, an artificial intelligence company.[7]

Musk has expressed views that have made him a polarizing figure.[8][9][10] He has been criticized for making unscientific and misleading statements, including COVID-19 misinformation, transphobia[11][12][13] and antisemitic conspiracy theories.[8][14][15][16] His Twitter ownership has been similarly controversial, including laying off a large number of employees, an increase in hate speech on the website,[17][18] and changes to Twitter Blue verification.[19][20] In 2018, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) sued him for falsely tweeting that he had secured funding for a private takeover of Tesla. To settle the case, Musk stepped down as the chairman of Tesla and paid a $20 million fine.

  1. ^ "Elon Musk Reflects on "Brutal" Relationship With Amber Heard in New Biography". E! Online. September 13, 2023. Archived from the original on October 20, 2023. Retrieved October 17, 2023.
  2. ^ Cite error: The named reference GrimesVanityFair2022 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  3. ^ Berger (2021), pp. 182.
  4. ^ Cite error: The named reference NYTTAU was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ "Bloomberg Billionaires Index". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on July 8, 2017. Retrieved July 25, 2022.
  6. ^ "Real Time Billionaires". Forbes. Archived from the original on February 10, 2014. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
  7. ^ "X.AI Corp". OpenCorporates. Archived from the original on August 5, 2023. Retrieved July 27, 2023.
  8. ^ a b Ghaffary, Shirin (May 20, 2023). "Elon Musk won't stop tweeting his way into trouble". Vox. Archived from the original on October 27, 2023. Retrieved October 28, 2023.
  9. ^ Shephard, Alex (March 21, 2023). "What Is Elon Musk Building?". The New Republic. Archived from the original on October 26, 2023. Retrieved October 26, 2023.
  10. ^ Bond, Shannon (October 31, 2022). "Elon Musk said Twitter wouldn't become a 'hellscape.' It's already changing". NPR. Archived from the original on October 20, 2023. Retrieved October 28, 2023.
  11. ^ Bauer, Sydney (June 23, 2023). "Elon Musk Has Made Anti-Trans Hatred One of Twitter's Core Features" – via www.thenation.com. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  12. ^ Cite error: The named reference independent2023 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  13. ^ Thakker, Prem; Noah, Timothy; Thakker, Prem; Otten, Tori; Thakker, Prem; Thakker, Prem; Otten, Tori; Aronoff, Kate; Otten, Tori; Thakker, Prem (November 1, 2022). "Elon Musk Personally Elevates Transphobic Video Originally Flagged as Hate Speech". The New Republic.
  14. ^ "Disney, Apple among major companies to pull business from X after Elon Musk's antisemitic post". NBC News. November 18, 2023.
  15. ^ Hatmaker, Taylor (November 17, 2023). "Backlash builds after Elon Musk called an antisemitic conspiracy theory the 'actual truth'".
  16. ^ "Another Day, Another Antisemitic Conspiracy Theory for Elon Musk and X". Vanity Fair. November 16, 2023.
  17. ^ Cite error: The named reference :5 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  18. ^ Cohen, Julia (April 24, 2023). "Analysis finds hate speech has significantly increased on Twitter". phys.org. Retrieved November 16, 2023.
  19. ^ Cite error: The named reference :6 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  20. ^ Cite error: The named reference :7 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

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