Nord Stream (German–English mixed expression for "North Stream"; Russian: Северный поток, Severny potok) is a network of offshore natural gas pipelines which run under the Baltic Sea from Russia to Germany to provide Western Europe with natural gas. It comprises two separate projects, Nord Stream 1 and Nord Stream 2. Both pipelines each comprise two pipes, NS1 A and B as well as NS2 A and B, for a total of 4 physical pipes. Both pipelines start in Russia and land in Lubmin, Germany. They are majority owned (51 per cent) by Russia, along with German, Dutch and French stakeholders. They were financed by a consortium of companies from Russia, Germany, France, Austria and the Netherlands. It was the first pipeline that bypassed Ukraine and Poland to deliver Russian natural gas directly to West Europe.
The project Nord Stream 2 was opposed from the start by the United States, who later imposed sanctions on companies that were involved in the project. The U.S. sanctions were criticized heavily by German politicians as "a serious interference in the internal affairs of Germany and Europe and their sovereignty".
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