Information technology

A program in paper tape

Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to create, process, store, retrieve, and exchange all kinds of data[1] and information. IT is typically used within the context of business operations as opposed to personal or entertainment technologies.[2] IT forms part of information and communications technology (ICT).[3] An information technology system (IT system) is generally an information system, a communications system, or, more specifically speaking, a computer system — including all hardware, software, and peripheral equipment — operated by a limited group of IT users.

Although humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating, and communicating information since the earliest writing systems were developed,[4] the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958 article published in the Harvard Business Review; authors Harold J. Leavitt and Thomas L. Whisler commented that "the new technology does not yet have a single established name. We shall call it information technology (IT)."[5] Their definition consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, and the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs.[5]

The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Several products or services within an economy are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, software, electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom equipment, and e-commerce.[6][a]

Based on the storage and processing technologies employed, it is possible to distinguish four distinct phases of IT development: pre-mechanical (3000 BC — 1450 AD), mechanical (1450—1840), electromechanical (1840—1940), and electronic (1940 to present).[4] This article focuses on the most recent period (electronic).[8]

Information technology is also a branch of computer science, which can be defined as the overall study of procedure, structure, and the processing of various types of data. As this field continues to evolve across the world, the overall priority and importance has also grown, which is where we begin to see the introduction of computer science-related courses in K-12 education. However, concerns have been raised about this fact that most schools are lacking advanced-placement courses in this field.[9]

  1. ^ Daintith, John, ed. (2009), "IT", A Dictionary of Physics, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780199233991, retrieved 1 August 2012 (subscription required).
  2. ^ "Free on-line dictionary of computing (FOLDOC)". Archived from the original on 15 April 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  3. ^ "Computer Technology Definition". Law Insider. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  4. ^ a b Butler, Jeremy G., A History of Information Technology and Systems, University of Arizona, archived from the original on 5 August 2012, retrieved 2 August 2012
  5. ^ a b Leavitt, Harold J.; Whisler, Thomas L. (1958), "Management in the 1980s", Harvard Business Review, 11.
  6. ^ Chandler, Daniel; Munday, Rod (10 February 2011), "Information technology", A Dictionary of Media and Communication (first ed.), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199568758, retrieved 1 August 2012, Commonly a synonym for computers and computer networks but more broadly designating any technology that is used to generate, store, process, and/or distribute information electronically, including television and telephone..
  7. ^ Ralston, Hemmendinger & Reilly (2000), p. 869.
  8. ^ "What is Computer Technology | IGI Global". www.igi-global.com. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  9. ^ Henderson, H. (2017). computer science. In H. Henderson, Facts on File science library: Encyclopedia of computer science and technology. (3rd ed.).


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