Korean wave

The Korean wave or K-wave (Korean한류; Hanja韓流; RRHallyu; MRHallyu, listen , a neologism, literally meaning "wave/flow of Korea") is the increase in global popularity of South Korean culture since the 1990s.[1][2][3] First driven by the spread of K-dramas and K-pop across East, Southeast and South Asia during its initial stages, the Korean Wave have since evolved from a regional development in Asia into a global phenomenon, carried by the Internet and social media and the proliferation of K-pop music videos on YouTube.[4][5][6][7] While some sources attribute the term Hallyu, a variation of a Japanese expression using Ryu (流) as a postfix to refer to '~way', '~style' or '~group',[8] to being first used by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism in South Korea in 1999, when the ministry produced a music CD titled in Chinese 韓流—Song from Korea, other scholarly sources attribute the term's ascendance from Korean television dramas first airing on Chinese television in 1997, naming the phenomenon hanliu (simplified Chinese: 韩流; traditional Chinese: 韓流; pinyin: Hánliú), meaning "Korean wave".[9] The term was adopted by Chinese media to refer to the success of South Korean popular culture in China.[10] The term was reintroduced in Japan as hanryu or kanryu by the Asahi Shimbun in 2001.[11] These two terms, hallyu and Korean wave, were included in the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) in 2021.[12]

Since the turn of the 21st century, South Korea has emerged as a major exporter of popular culture and tourism, aspects which have become a significant part of its rapidly developed economy. The growing popularity of Korean pop culture in the world was at least partly driven and funded by the South Korean government supporting its creative industries since the end of the 1990s through subsidies and funding for start-ups, as a form of accruing soft power with the goal of becoming a leading global exporter of culture, a niche that the United States has dominated for nearly a century.[13] In 2014, the South Korean government allocated 1% of its annual budget to cultural industries and raised a $1 billion fund to nurture popular culture.[14][15]

The success of the Korean wave is also due to the development of social networking services and online video sharing platforms, which have allowed the Korean entertainment industry to reach a sizable overseas audience since the 2000s. Korean dramas have enjoyed widespread availability via streaming services which often offer subtitles in multiple languages. Many K-dramas have been adapted throughout the world, achieving notable popularity in some countries. K-dramas have attracted attention for their fashion, style and culture all over the world.[15][16]

The Korean wave has become an influential global phenomenon since the start of the 21st century, heavily impacting the contemporary cultures, music industry, film industry, television industry, and behavioral aspects of various people throughout the world.[17][1][18][19][20] Since 2020 the Korean wave is led by K-pop, with stand-out acts such as BTS and Blackpink, followed by K-dramas.[21]

As the popularity of K-pop songs such as "Gangnam Style", "Dynamite", and "Butter", and K-dramas such as Descendants of the Sun,[22] Vincenzo,[23] Squid Game[24] and Hometown Cha-Cha-Cha[25] accomplished international success, South Korea has become recognized as a hub of both economic and soft power.[26][27][28] The South Korean mass media and entertainment industry are considered to have high production values with cutting edge technology and talent.[29]

However, the Korean wave has also been criticized for its racism and sexism as well as the exploitation and treatment of artists and musicians within the Korean entertainment industry.[30][31] Such pressures have led to high-profile suicides such as Song Yoo-jung, Choi Jin-sil, Kim Jong-hyun, Goo Hara, Cha In-ha, Sulli, and Oh In-hye, among others.[32][33][34] In 2019, the Burning Sun scandal highlighted widespread sex trafficking involving Korean celebrities and idols that had been ongoing for years, and the ensuing cover-up attempts.[35][36][37] Various Korean dramas have also been condemned for attempts to take advantage of the Korean wave to distort, rewrite or whitewash Korea's history, and especially South Korea's historical periods and dictatorship era.[38][39][40]

  1. ^ a b Farrar, Lara (31 December 2010). "'Korean Wave' of Pop Culture Sweeps Across Asia". CNN. Retrieved 16 March 2010.
  2. ^ "Hallyu (Korean Wave)". Korean Cultural Center. Korean Culture and Information Service. n.d. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
  3. ^ Ravina, Mark (2009). "Introduction: Conceptualizing the Korean Wave" (PDF). Southeast Review of Asian Studies. 31: 3–9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2015.
  4. ^ Yoon, Lina (26 August 2010). "Korean Pop, with Online Help, Goes Global". Time. Archived from the original on 30 September 2013.
  5. ^ Russell, Mark James (27 September 2012). "The Gangnam Phenom". FP. Retrieved 11 October 2012. First taking off in China and Southeast Asia in the late 1990s, but really spiking after 2002, Korean TV dramas and pop music have since moved to the Middle East and Eastern Europe, and now even parts of South America.
  6. ^ Jung, Ha-Won (20 June 2012). "K-pop Spreads to Latin America". Yahoo News. Retrieved 28 March 2013.
  7. ^ Brown, August (29 April 2012). "K-pop Enters American Pop Consciousness". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
  8. ^ Jang, Gyu-Soo (2011). 한류의 어원과 사용에 관한 연구 [Study of Korean Wave's the Origin and the Usage]. Journal of the Korea Contents Association (in Korean). 11 (9): 166–173. doi:10.5392/JKCA.2011.11.9.166. S2CID 140173191.
  9. ^ Howard, Keith (2010). "Chua Beng Huat and Koichi Iwabuchi (eds): East Asian Pop Culture: Analysing the Korean Wave. (TransAsia: Screen Cultures.) xi, 307 pp. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2008. ISBN 978 962 209 893 0". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 73 (1): 144–146. doi:10.1017/S0041977X09990589. S2CID 161942233.
  10. ^ Jin, Dal Yong; Yoon, Tae-Jin (2017). "The Korean Wave: Retrospect and Prospect – Introduction". International Journal of Communication. 11: 2241–2249. S2CID 54575596.
  11. ^ Miller, Laura (2008). "Korean TV Dramas and the Japan-style Korean Wave". Post Script. 27 (3): 17–24. S2CID 165419641.
  12. ^ Salazar, Danica (6 September 2021). "Daebak! The OED Gets a K-update". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 29 January 2022.
  13. ^ Valeriano, B.; Nissen, A. (16 February 2022). "This Is South Korea's K-pop Soft Power Moment". The Diplomat.
  14. ^ "Soap, Sparkle and Pop". The Economist. 9 August 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
  15. ^ a b Leong, Melissa (2 August 2014). "How Korea Became the World's Coolest Brand". Financial Post. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  16. ^ "PSY's 'Gangnam Style': The Billboard Cover Story". Billboard. 26 October 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2012. The Korean music industry grossed nearly $3.4 billion in the first half of 2012, according to Billboard estimates, a 27.8% increase from the same period last year.
  17. ^ Jin, Dal Yong (2012). "Hallyu 2.0: The New Korean Wave in the Creative Industry". International Institute Journal. 2 (1): 3–7. hdl:2027/spo.11645653.0002.102. S2CID 153003031.
  18. ^ Cheon, Sang Yee (2015). "The Global Impact of South Korean Popular Culture: Hallyu Unbound, edited by Valentina Marinescu. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books, 2014. 166 pages. $80.00 cloth; $79.99 e-book". Korean Studies. 39: 113–114. doi:10.1353/ks.2015.0005. S2CID 162503679.
  19. ^ Kim, Harry (2 February 2016). "Surfing the Korean Wave: How K-pop is taking over the world". The McGill Tribune. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
  20. ^ Duong, Nguyen Hoi Phuong (2016). Korean Wave as Cultural Imperialism: A Study of K-pop Reception in Vietnam (Thesis). Universiteit Leiden. hdl:1887/37300.
  21. ^ Kim, Ji-soo (15 January 2020). "K-pop, Hallyu Continue Global Rise". The Korea Times. Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  22. ^ Wan, Foong Woei (16 March 2016). "3 Reasons Why Descendants of the Sun Is the Biggest K-drama Phenomenon Now". The Straits Times. Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  23. ^ MacDonald, Joan (13 December 2021). "'Vincenzo' Wins Best Drama Series at 26th Asian Television Awards". Forbes. Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  24. ^ "Korean Drama Squid Game About to Become 'Netflix's Biggest Show Ever', Says CEO". Firstpost. 30 September 2021. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  25. ^ Kwak, Yeon-soo (1 October 2021). "Not Just 'Squid Game,' Now 'Hometown Cha-Cha-Cha' Gains Worldwide Popularity". The Korea Times. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  26. ^ Bagchi, Shrabonti (4 October 2021). "Why K-dramas Are So Addictive". Mint Lounge. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
  27. ^ McCurry, Justin (5 October 2021). "K-beauty, Hallyu and Mukbang: Dozens of Korean Words Added to Oxford English Dictionary". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 October 2021.
  28. ^ Kuwahara, Yasue (2014). "Introduction". In Kuwahara, Yasue (ed.). The Korean Wave: Korean Popular Culture in Global Context. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 1–9. doi:10.1057/9781137350282_1. ISBN 978-1-349-46832-4.
  29. ^ "Why 26 Korean Words Have Been Added to Oxford English Dictionary". BBC News. 5 October 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2021.
  30. ^ Stiles, Matt (19 December 2017). "Death of K-pop star shines a spotlight on South Korea's suicide problem". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  31. ^ Williamson, Lucy (14 June 2011). "The dark side of South Korean pop music". BBC News. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  32. ^ Dae-o, Kim (4 January 2020). "I have reported on 30 Korean celebrity suicides. The blame game never changes". the Guardian. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  33. ^ Tai, Crystal (29 March 2020). "Exploding the myths behind K-pop". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  34. ^ L, Sophia (17 February 2021). "Underneath the Glamour of K-Pop Idols: A Tale of Abuse and Exploitation". The Emory Wheel. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  35. ^ Campbell, Matthew; Kim, Sohee (6 November 2019). "The Dark Side of K-Pop: Assault, Prostitution, Suicide, and Spycams". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  36. ^ Wilder, Gabriel (7 June 2019). "The Burning Sun scandal that torched South Korea's elites". www.lowyinstitute.org. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  37. ^ Brown, August (5 April 2019). "K-pop's innocent image is shattered by the 'Burning Sun' scandal". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  38. ^ Smail, Gretchen. "This K-Drama Is One Of The Most Controversial Shows On Disney+". Bustle. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  39. ^ Jeong, Sho (21 December 2021). "4 Korean Dramas Fiercely Criticized For Distorting History". KStarTrend. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  40. ^ Koo, Se-Woong (9 January 2022). "History Becomes Unmentionable in Historical K-Dramas". Korea Expose. Retrieved 19 March 2022.

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