Bangladesh

Coordinates: 24°N 90°E / 24°N 90°E / 24; 90

People's Republic of Bangladesh
  • গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ  (Bengali)
  • Gônoprojatontrī Bangladesh
Anthem: "Amar Sonar Bangla" (Bengali)
"My Golden Bengal"
March: "Notuner Gaan"
"The Song of Youth"[1]
National Slogan: "Joy Bangla"
"Victory to Bengal"[2][3]
Official Seal of the Government of Bangladesh
  • Seal of the Government of Bangladesh
Bangladesh (orthographic projection).svg
Capital
and largest city
Dhaka
23°45′50″N 90°23′20″E / 23.76389°N 90.38889°E / 23.76389; 90.38889
Official language
and national language
Bengali[4]
Ethnic groups
(2011[5])
Religion
(2011[6])
Demonym(s)Bangladeshi
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party parliamentary republic
• President
Abdul Hamid
Sheikh Hasina
Shirin Sharmin Chaudhury
Hasan Foez Siddique
LegislatureJatiya Sangsad
• Declared
26 March 1971
• V-Day
16 December 1971
16 December 1972
Area
• Total
148,460[7] km2 (57,320 sq mi) (94nd[7])
• Water (%)
6.4
• Land area
130,170 sq Km[7]
• Water area
18,290 sq km[7]
Population
• 2018 estimate
Neutral increase 161,376,708[8][9] (8th)
• 2011 census
149,772,364[10] (8th)
• Density
1,106/km2 (2,864.5/sq mi) (7th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.070 trillion[11] (27th)
• Per capita
Increase $6,630 (125th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
• Total
Increase $411 billion[12] (33rd)
• Per capita
Increase $2,554 [11] (149th)
Gini (2018)Negative increase 39.5[13]
medium
HDI (2019)Increase 0.632[14]
medium · 133rd
CurrencyTaka () (BDT)
Time zoneUTC+6 (BST)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy (CE)
Mains electricity220 V–50 Hz
Driving sideleft
Calling code+880
ISO 3166 codeBD
Internet TLD.bd
.বাংলা

Bangladesh (/bæŋləˈdɛʃ/;[15] Bengali: বাংলাদেশ, pronounced [ˈbaŋlaˌdeʃ] (audio speaker iconlisten)), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 163 million people in an area of either 148,460 square kilometres (57,320 sq mi) or 147,570 square kilometres (56,980 sq mi),[7][16] making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Bangladesh shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, Myanmar to the southeast, and the Bay of Bengal to the south. It is narrowly separated from Nepal and Bhutan by the Siliguri Corridor; and from China by 100 km of the Indian state of Sikkim in the north.[17] Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's economic, political, and cultural hub. Chittagong, the largest seaport, is the second-largest city.

Bangladesh forms the sovereign part of the historic and ethnolinguistic region of Bengal, which was divided during the Partition of British India in 1947.[18] The country has a Bengali Muslim majority. Ancient Bengal was an important cultural center in the Indian subcontinent as the home of the states of Vanga, Pundra, Gangaridai, Gauda, Samatata, and Harikela. The Mauryan, Gupta, Pala, Sena, Chandra and Deva dynasties were the last pre-Islamic rulers of Bengal. The Muslim conquest of Bengal began in 1204 when Bakhtiar Khalji overran northern Bengal and invaded Tibet. Becoming part of the Delhi Sultanate, three city-states emerged in the 14th century with much of eastern Bengal being ruled from Sonargaon. Sufi missionary leaders like Sultan Balkhi, Shah Jalal and Shah Makhdum Rupos helped in spreading Muslim rule. The region was unified into an independent, unitary Bengal Sultanate. Under Mughal rule, eastern Bengal continued to prosper as the melting pot of Muslims in the eastern subcontinent and attracted traders from around the world. Mughal Bengal became increasingly assertive and independent under the Nawabs of Bengal in the 18th century. In 1757, the betrayal of Mir Jafar resulted in the defeat of Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah to the British East India Company and eventual British dominance across South Asia. The Bengal Presidency grew into the largest administrative unit in British India. The creation of Eastern Bengal and Assam in 1905 set a precedent for the emergence of Bangladesh.

In 1947, East Bengal became the most populous province in the Dominion of Pakistan. It was renamed as East Pakistan with Dhaka becoming the country's legislative capital. The Bengali Language Movement in 1952; the East Bengali legislative election, 1954; the 1958 Pakistani coup d'état; the Six point movement of 1966; and the 1970 Pakistani general election resulted in the rise of Bengali nationalism and pro-democracy movements in East Pakistan. The refusal of the Pakistani military junta to transfer power to the Awami League led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman led to the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, in which the Mukti Bahini aided by India waged a guerrilla war. The conflict saw the 1971 Bangladesh genocide and the massacre of pro-independence Bengali civilians, including intellectuals. The new state of Bangladesh became the first constitutionally secular state in South Asia in 1972.[19] Islam was declared the state religion in 1988.[20][21][22] In 2010, the Bangladesh Supreme Court reaffirmed secular principles in the constitution.[23]

Bangladesh is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic based on the Westminster system. Bengalis make up 98% of the total population of Bangladesh,[4] and the large Muslim population of Bangladesh makes it the third-largest Muslim-majority country. The country is divided into eight administrative divisions and 64 districts.[24] It maintains the third-largest military in South Asia after India and Pakistan; and has been a major contributor to UN peacekeeping operations. A middle power in the Indo-Pacific,[25] Bangladesh is an emerging economy ranked as the 33rd-largest in the world by nominal GDP, and the 29th-largest by PPP. It hosts one of the largest refugee populations in the world due to the Rohingya genocide.[26] Bangladesh faces many challenges, including the adverse effects of climate change,[27] poverty, illiteracy,[28] corruption, authoritarianism and human rights abuses. However, the poverty rate has halved since 2011 and the country is expected to become a middle income country in this decade.[29][30] Once a historic center of the muslin cloth trade, Bangladesh is now one of the world's largest modern garment exporters.

  1. ^ "National Symbols→National march". Bangladesh Tourism Board. Bangladesh: Ministry of Civil Aviation & Tourism. Archived from the original on 28 December 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2015. In 13 January 1972, the ministry of Bangladesh has adopted this song as a national marching song on its first meeting after the country's independence.
  2. ^ "'Joy Bangla' to be national slogan: HC". Daily Prothom Alo. 10 March 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  3. ^ "HC orders govt to announce 'Joy Bangla' as national slogan in three months". bdnews24.com. 10 March 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  4. ^ a b "Article 3. The state language". The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd. Ministry of Law, The People's Republic of Bangladesh. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  5. ^ "Bānlādēśakē jānuna" জানুন [Discover Bangladesh] (in Bengali). National Web Portal of Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  6. ^ "Bangladesh 2015 International Religious Freedom Report" (PDF). US Department of State. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d e "South Asia :: Bangladesh — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  8. ^ ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  9. ^ ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  10. ^ Data Archived 4 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Census – Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.
  11. ^ a b "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2021". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
  12. ^ Byron, Rejaul Karim (28 December 2021). "Bangladesh poised to become $500b economy by next fiscal". The Daily Star. Retrieved 28 December 2021.
  13. ^ "Gini Index". Knoema. Archived from the original on 7 September 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2021.
  14. ^ "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  15. ^ "English pronunciation of Bangladesh". Cambridge Dictionary. Cambridge Dictionary. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  16. ^ বাংলাদেশ পরিসংখ্যান বর্ষগ্রন্থ ২০২০ - Bangladesh Statistics annual book 2020 (PDF). Bangladesh Statistics Bureau. p. 21. ISBN 978-984-475-047-0.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  17. ^ "America should bet on Bangladesh". Tbsnews.net. 4 December 2021. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  18. ^ Frank E. Eyetsemitan; James T. Gire (2003). Aging and Adult Development in the Developing World: Applying Western Theories and Concepts. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-89789-925-3.
  19. ^ Lailufar Yasmin. "Struggle for the Soul of Bangladesh | Institute for Global Change". Institute.global. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  20. ^ "Bangladesh profile - Timeline". BBC News. 26 February 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  21. ^ Alam, Shah (1991). "The State-Religion Amendment to the Constitution of Bangladesh: A Critique". Verfassung und Recht in Übersee / Law and Politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America. 24 (2): 209–225. JSTOR 43110030 – via JSTOR.
  22. ^ "Writ challenging Islam as state religion rejected". The Daily Star. 28 March 2016. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  23. ^ "Bangladesh" (PDF). U.S. State Department. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  24. ^ "Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population". Pew Research Center. 7 October 2009. Retrieved 30 November 2019.
  25. ^ "A rising Bangladesh starts to exert its regional power | The Interpreter". Lowyinstitute.org. 21 February 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  26. ^ Mahmud, Faisal. "Four years on, Rohingya stuck in Bangladesh camps yearn for home | Rohingya News". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  27. ^ Maxwell, David. "Bangladesh, India Most Threatened by Climate Change, Risk Study Finds | National Geographic (blogs)". Archived from the original on 3 May 2016. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  28. ^ "1 in 4 illiterate in Bangladesh". Dhaka Tribune. 8 September 2019.
  29. ^ "Bangladesh needs continued commitment to democracy, HR for next level dev: US | Independent". m.theindependentbd.com.
  30. ^ "Overview".

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