East Asia

East Asia
East Asia (orthographic projection).svg
Area11,840,000 km2 (4,570,000 sq mi) (3rd)
Population1.6 billion (2020; 4th)
Population density141.9/km2 (54.8/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)$40 trillion (2022)[1]
GDP (nominal)$27.5 trillion (2022)[2]
GDP per capita$17,188 (nominal)[2]
DemonymEast Asian
Countries
Dependencies
LanguagesChinese, Japanese, Korean, Mongolian, Tibetan, Others
Time zonesUTC+7, UTC+8 & UTC+9
Largest citiesList of urban areas:[7]
UN M49 code030 – Eastern Asia
142Asia
001World
East Asia
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese东亚/东亚细亚
Traditional Chinese東亞/東亞細亞
Tibetan name
Tibetanཨེ་ཤ་ཡ་ཤར་མ་
Korean name
Hangul동아시아/동아세아/동아
Hanja東아시아/東亞細亞/東亞
Mongolian name
Mongolian CyrillicЗүүн Ази
ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨ ᠠᠽᠢ
Japanese name
Kanaひがしアジア/とうあ
Kyūjitai東亞細亞/東亞
Shinjitai東亜細亜(東アジア)/東亜
Uyghur name
Uyghurشەرقىي ئاسىي

East Asia is the eastern region of Asia, which is defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms.[8][9] The modern states of East Asia include China, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan.[3][4][5][6] China, North Korea, South Korea and Taiwan are all unrecognised by at least one other East Asian state due to severe ongoing political tensions in the region, specifically the division of Korea and the political status of Taiwan. Hong Kong and Macau, two small coastal quasi-dependent territories located in the south of China, are officially highly autonomous but are under de jure Chinese sovereignty. East Asia borders Siberia and the Russian Far East to the north, Southeast Asia to the south, South Asia to the southwest, and Central Asia to the west. To the east is the Pacific Ocean and to the southeast is Micronesia (a Pacific Ocean island group, classified as part of Oceania).

East Asia, especially Chinese civilisation, is regarded as one of the earliest cradles of civilisation. Other ancient civilisations in East Asia that still exist as independent countries in the present day include the Japanese, Korean and Mongolian civilisations. Various other civilisations existed as separate political entities in East Asia in the past but have since been absorbed into neighbouring civilisations in the present day, such as Tibet, Baiyue, Manchuria, Ryukyu and Ainu among many others. Taiwan has a relatively young history in the region after the prehistoric era; originally, it was a major site of Austronesian civilisation prior to colonisation by European colonial powers and China from the 17th century onward. For thousands of years, China was the leading civilisation in the region, exerting influence on its neighbours.[10][11][12] Historically, societies in East Asia have fallen within the Chinese sphere of influence, and East Asian vocabulary and scripts are often derived from Classical Chinese and Chinese script. The Chinese calendar serves as the root from which many other East Asian calendars are derived. Major religions in East Asia include Buddhism (mostly Mahayana[13]), Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism, Taoism, Ancestral worship, and Chinese folk religion in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan, Shintoism in Japan, and Christianity, and Sindoism in Korea.[14][15][16] Tengerism and Tibetan Buddhism are prevalent among Mongols and Tibetans while other religions such as Shamanism are widespread among the indigenous populations of northeastern China such as the Manchus.[17][18][19] Major languages in East Asia include Mandarin Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Major ethnic groups of East Asia include the Han (mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan), Yamato (Japan) and Koreans (North Korea, South Korea). Mongols, although not as populous as the previous three ethnic groups, constitute the majority of Mongolia's population. There are 76 officially-recognised minority or indigenous ethnic groups in East Asia; 55 native to mainland China (including Hui, Manchus, Chinese Mongols, Tibetans, Uyghurs and Zhuang in the frontier regions), 16 native to the island of Taiwan (collectively known as Taiwanese indigenous peoples), one native to the major Japanese island of Hokkaido (the Ainu) and four native to Mongolia (Turkic peoples). Ryukyuan people are an unrecognised ethnic group indigenous to the Ryukyu Islands in southern Japan, which stretch from Kyushu Island (Japan) to Taiwan. There are also several unrecognised indigenous ethnic groups in mainland China and Taiwan.

East Asian people comprise around 1.7 billion people, making up about 38% of the population in Continental Asia and 20.5% of the global population.[20][21][22] The region is home to major world metropolises such as Beijing, Hong Kong, Seoul, Shanghai, Taipei, and Tokyo. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia and Western China, both landlocked areas, is very sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of a sovereign state. The overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants per square kilometre (340/sq mi), about three times the world average of 45/km2 (120/sq mi).[when?][citation needed]

East Asia has some of the world's largest and most prosperous economies: Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, China, Hong Kong, and Macau.[23]

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference IMF was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  2. ^ a b "World Economic Outlook Database". International Monetary Fund. October 2020. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  3. ^ a b Kort, Michael (2005). The Handbook Of East Asia. Lerner Publishing Group. p. 7. ISBN 978-0761326724.
  4. ^ a b "East Asia". rand.org. RAND Corporation. Retrieved 12 August 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  5. ^ a b "Tasks of German foreign policy-East Asia" (PDF). auswaertiges-amt.de. German Federal Foreign Office. May 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 December 2021. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  6. ^ a b "Countries of Asia". nationsonline.org. Nations Online. Retrieved 12 August 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. ^ "Demographia.com" (PDF).
  8. ^ "East Asia". Encarta. Microsoft. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. Retrieved 2008-01-12. the countries and regions of Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Mongolia, South Korea, North Korea and Japan.
  9. ^ Miller, David Y. (2007). Modern East Asia: An Introductory History. Routledge. pp. xxi–xxiv. ISBN 978-0765618221.
  10. ^ Zaharna, R.S.; Arsenault, Amelia; Fisher, Ali (2013). Relational, Networked and Collaborative Approaches to Public Diplomacy: The Connective Mindshift (1st ed.). Routledge (published 2013-05-01). p. 93. ISBN 978-0415636070.
  11. ^ Holcombe, Charles (2017). A History of East Asia: From the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-1107544895.
  12. ^ Szonyi, Michael (2017). A Companion to Chinese History. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 90. ISBN 978-1118624609.
  13. ^ Selin, Helaine (2010). Nature Across Cultures: Views of Nature and the Environment in Non-Western Cultures. Springer. p. 350. ISBN 978-9048162710.
  14. ^ Salkind, Neil J. (2008). Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology. Sage Publications. p. 56. ISBN 978-1412916882.
  15. ^ Kim, Chongho (2003). Korean Shamanism: The Cultural Paradox. Ashgate. ISBN 9780754631859.
  16. ^ Andreas Anangguru Yewangoe, "Theologia crucis in Asia", 1987 Rodopi
  17. ^ Heissig, Walther (2000). The Religions of Mongolia. Translated by Samuel, Geoffrey. Kegan Paul International. p. 46. ISBN 9780710306852.
  18. ^ Elliott (2001), p. 235.
  19. ^ Shirokogorov (1929), p. 204.
  20. ^ Spinosa, Ludovico (2007). Wastewater Sludge. Iwa Publishing. p. 57. ISBN 978-1843391425.
  21. ^ Wang, Yuchen; Lu Dongsheng; Chung Yeun-Jun; Xu Shuhua (2018). "Genetic structure, divergence and admixture of Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean populations". Hereditas. 155: 19. doi:10.1186/s41065-018-0057-5. PMC 5889524. PMID 29636655.
  22. ^ Wang, Yuchen; Lu, Dongsheng; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Xu, Shuhua (2018). "Genetic structure, divergence and admixture of Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean populations". Hereditas (published April 6, 2018). 155: 19. doi:10.1186/s41065-018-0057-5. PMC 5889524. PMID 29636655.
  23. ^ "East Asia in the 21st Century | Boundless World History". courses.lumenlearning.com. Retrieved 2019-11-25.

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