Western world

The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various regions, nations and states, depending on the context, most often consisting of the majority of Europe,[a] Northern America,[b] and Australasia.[3] The Western world is also known as the Occident (from the Latin word occidens, "sunset, West"), in contrast to the Orient (from the Latin word oriens, "rise, East") or Eastern world. It might mean the Northern half of the North–South divide, the countries of the Global North (often equated with developed countries).[4]

The Western world based-on Samuel P. Huntington's 1996 Clash of Civilizations.[5] In turquoise are Latin America and the Orthodox World, which are either a part of the West or distinct civilizations intimately related to the West.[6][7]

The concept of the Western part of the earth has its roots in the theological, methodological and emphatical division between the Western Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches.[8] The West was originally Western Christendom, opposing Catholic and Protestant Europe with the cultures and civilizations of Orthodox Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and East Asia, which medieval and early modern Western Europeans saw as the East.

"Western Christian civilization" (red) and "Eastern Christian civilization" (brown), according to Samuel Huntington. For Huntington, Latin America (dark green) was part of the West or a descendant civilization that was twinned to it. For Rouquié, Latin America is the "Third World of the West."

By the mid-20th century, Western culture was exported worldwide through the emergent mass media: film, radio, television and recorded music; and the development and growth of international transport and telecommunication (such as transatlantic cable and the radiotelephone) played a decisive role in modern globalization.

In modern usage, Western world sometimes[9] refers to Europe and to areas whose populations have had a large presence of particular European ethnic groups since the 15th century Age of Discovery.[10][11] This is most evident in Australia and New Zealand's inclusion in modern definitions of the Western world: despite being part of the Eastern Hemisphere; these regions and those like it are included due to its significant British influence deriving from the colonisation of British explorers and the immigration of Europeans in the 20th century which has since grounded the country to the Western world politically and culturally.[12]

  1. ^ "Western Countries 2020". 4 June 2020.
  2. ^ Espinosa, Emilio Lamo de (4 December 2017). "Is Latin America part of the West?" (PDF). Elcano Royal Institute.
  3. ^ Western Civilization, Our Tradition; James Kurth; accessed 30 August 2011
  4. ^ "Introduction: Concepts of the Global South". gssc.uni-koeln.de. Archived from the original on 4 September 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
  5. ^ THE WORLD OF CIVILIZATIONS: POST-1990 scanned image Archived 12 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Huntington, Samuel P. (1991). Clash of Civilizations (6th ed.). Washington, DC. pp. 38–39. ISBN 978-0-684-84441-1 – via http://www.mercaba.org/SANLUIS/Historia/Universal/Huntington,%20Samuel%20-%20El%20choque%20de%20civilizaciones.pdf (in Spanish). The origin of western civilization is usually dated to 700 or 800 AD. In general, researchers consider that it has three main components, in Europe, North America and Latin America. [...] However, Latin America has followed a quite different development path from Europe and North America. Although it is a scion of European civilization, it also incorporates more elements of indigenous American civilizations compared to those of North America and Europe. It also currently has had a more corporatist and authoritarian culture. Both Europe and North America felt the effects of Reformation and combination of Catholic and Protestant cultures. Historically, Latin America has been only Catholic, although this may be changing. [...] Latin America could be considered, or a sub-set, within Western civilization, or can also be considered a separate civilization, intimately related to the West, but divided as to whether it belongs with it. {{cite book}}: External link in |via= (help)
  7. ^ Huntington, Samuel P. (2 August 2011). The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. Simon & Schuster. pp. 151–154. ISBN 978-1451628975.
  8. ^ Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (1998). A history of eastern Europe: crisis and change. Routledge. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-415-16112-1.
  9. ^ Western Civilization, Our Tradition; James Kurth; accessed 30 August 2011
  10. ^ Thompson, William; Hickey, Joseph (2005). Society in Focus. Boston, MA: Pearson. 0-205-41365-X.
  11. ^ Gregerson, Linda; Juster, Susan (2011). Empires of God: Religious Encounters in the Early Modern Atlantic. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0812222609. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  12. ^ Peter N. Stearns, Western Civilization in World History, Themes in World History, Routledge, 2008, ISBN 1134374755, pp. 91-95.

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