Orson Welles

Orson Welles
Orson Welles 1937.jpg
Welles in 1937, photographed by Carl Van Vechten
Born
George Orson Welles

(1915-05-06)May 6, 1915
DiedOctober 10, 1985(1985-10-10) (aged 70)
Resting placeRonda, Andalusia, Spain
Alma materSchool of the Art Institute of Chicago[1][2]
Occupation
  • Actor
  • director
  • producer
  • screenwriter
Years active1931–1985
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)
Partner(s)
Children3, including Beatrice
Signature
Orson Welles signature.svg

George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) was an American director, actor, screenwriter, and producer who is remembered for his innovative work in radio, theatre and film. He is considered to be among the greatest and most influential filmmakers of all time.[3]

While in his 20s, Welles directed high-profile stage productions for the Federal Theatre Project, including an adaptation of Macbeth with an entirely African American cast and the political musical The Cradle Will Rock. In 1937, he and John Houseman founded the Mercury Theatre, an independent repertory theatre company that presented a series of productions on Broadway through 1941, including Caesar (1937), an adaptation of William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar.

In 1938, his radio anthology series The Mercury Theatre on the Air gave Welles the platform to find international fame as the director and narrator of a radio adaptation of H. G. Wells's novel The War of the Worlds, which caused some listeners to believe that an invasion by extraterrestrial beings was in fact occurring. Although reports of panic were mostly false and overstated,[4] they rocketed 23-year-old Welles to notoriety.

His first film was Citizen Kane (1941), which is consistently ranked as one of the greatest films ever made and which he co-wrote, produced, directed and starred in as the title character, Charles Foster Kane. Welles released twelve other features, the most acclaimed of which include The Magnificent Ambersons (1942), The Lady from Shanghai (1947), Touch of Evil (1958), The Trial (1962), Chimes at Midnight (1966) and F for Fake (1973).[5][6] His distinctive directorial style featured layered and nonlinear narrative forms, uses of lighting such as chiaroscuro, unusual camera angles, sound techniques borrowed from radio, deep focus shots and long takes. He has been praised as "the ultimate auteur".[7]: 6 

Welles was an outsider to the studio system and struggled for creative control on his projects early on with the major film studios in Hollywood and later in life with a variety of independent financiers across Europe, where he spent most of his career. Many of his films were either heavily edited or remained unreleased. Some, like Touch of Evil, have been painstakingly re-edited from his notes. With a development spanning almost 50 years, Welles's final film, The Other Side of the Wind, was posthumously released in 2018.

Welles had three marriages, including one with Rita Hayworth, and three children. Known for his baritone voice,[8] Welles performed extensively across theatre, radio, and film. He was a lifelong magician, noted for presenting troop variety shows in the war years. In 2002, he was voted the greatest film director of all time in two British Film Institute polls among directors and critics.[9][10] In 2018, he was included in the list of the 50 greatest Hollywood actors of all time by The Daily Telegraph.[11]

  1. ^ "Overview: Orson Welles, (1915–1985) American film director and actor". Oxford Reference. Archived from the original on December 5, 2020. Retrieved March 21, 2019.
  2. ^ "The Eyes of Orson Welles in Chicago at Gene Siskel Film Center". Chicago, Illinois Music, Nightlife & Events. Archived from the original on December 5, 2020. Retrieved March 21, 2019.
  3. ^ Cite error: The named reference NYT obit was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  4. ^ Bartholomew, Robert E. (2001). Little Green Men, Meowing Nuns and Head-Hunting Panics: A Study of Mass Psychogenic Illness and Social Delusion. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN 978-0786409976. Archived from the original on December 5, 2020. Retrieved March 30, 2010.
  5. ^ "List-o-Mania, or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love American Movies". Jonathan Rosenbaum. June 25, 1998. Archived from the original on April 28, 2016. Retrieved May 9, 2015.
  6. ^ "Great Movie: Chimes at Midnight". Roger Ebert. June 4, 2006. Archived from the original on January 4, 2020. Retrieved May 9, 2015.
  7. ^ Rosenbaum, Jonathan, Discovering Orson Welles Archived September 13, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 2007 ISBN 0520251237
  8. ^ Christley, Jaime N. (2003). "Orson Welles". Senses of Cinema. Archived from the original on September 14, 2012.
  9. ^ "Sight & Sound |Top Ten Poll 2002 – The Directors' Top Ten Directors". BFI. September 5, 2006. Archived from the original on October 13, 2018. Retrieved December 30, 2009.
  10. ^ "Sight & Sound |Top Ten Poll 2002 – The Critics' Top Ten Directors". BFI. September 5, 2006. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved December 30, 2009.
  11. ^ "The 50 greatest actors from Hollywood's Golden Age". The Daily Telegraph. June 25, 2018. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on November 9, 2019. Retrieved November 9, 2019.

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