Stanford University

Stanford University
Leland Stanford Junior University
MottoDie Luft der Freiheit weht (German)[1]
Motto in English
"The wind of freedom blows"[1]
TypePrivate research university
EstablishedOctober 1, 1891 (October 1, 1891)[2][3]
FounderLeland and Jane Stanford
Academic affiliations
Endowment$36.5 billion (2023)[4]
Budget$8.9 billion (2023/24)[5]
PresidentRichard Saller (interim)
Jonathan Levin (designate)
ProvostJenny Martinez
Academic staff
2,323 (Fall 2023)[6]
Administrative staff
18,369 (Fall 2023)[7]
Students17,529 (Fall 2023)[6]
Undergraduates7,841 (Fall 2023)[6]
Postgraduates9,688 (Fall 2023)[6]
Location, ,
United States 37°25′39″N 122°10′12″W / 37.42750°N 122.17000°W / 37.42750; -122.17000
CampusLarge suburb:[8] 8,180-acre (3,310-hectare)[6]
Other campuses
NewspaperThe Stanford Daily
ColorsCardinal Red & White[9]    
Sporting affiliations
MascotStanford Tree (unofficial)[10] Edit this at Wikidata

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University)[11][12] is a private research university in Stanford, California. It was founded in 1885 by Leland Stanford—a railroad magnate who served as the eighth governor of and then-incumbent senator from California—and his wife, Jane, in memory of their only child, Leland Jr.[2] Stanford has an 8,180-acre (3,310-hectare) campus, among the largest in the nation.[6] It is also frequently ranked amongst the most prestigious and highly respected universities in the world.[13][14]

The university is organized around seven schools of study on the same campus. It also houses the Hoover Institution, a public policy think tank. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, and the university is one of two private institutions in the Pac-12 Conference. Stanford has won 131 NCAA team championships,[15] more than any other university, and was awarded the NACDA Directors' Cup for 25 consecutive years, beginning in 1994.[16] Stanford students and alumni have also won over 296 Olympic medals (including 150 gold).[17]

The university admitted its first students in 1891,[2][3] opening as a coeducational and non-denominational institution. It struggled financially after Leland's death in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.[18] Following World War II, Frederick Terman, the 2nd university provost, inspired and supported both faculty and graduates entrepreneurialism to build a self-sufficient local industry (Silicon Valley).[19] In 1951, Stanford established Stanford Research Park in Palo Alto which is the world's first university research park. It has been called "the epicenter of Silicon Valley".[20]

Stanford is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity".[21] It has also been particularly noted for its entrepreneurial culture and is one of the most successful universities worldwide in attracting funding for start-ups and licensing its inventions to existing companies.[22][23][24][25][26] Alumni have founded numerous corporations, which combined produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue, equivalent to the tenth-largest economy in the world, and provide over 5.4 million jobs.[27][28][29] By 2021, the university had 2,288 tenure-line faculty, senior fellows, center fellows, and medical faculty on staff.[30]

Stanford is also the alma mater of several eminent world leaders, including the 31st President of the United States, Herbert Hoover, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Rishi Sunak, and the incumbent Prime Minister of Greece, Kyriakos Mitsotakis. The university is also associated with 74 living billionaires,[31] 58 Nobel laureates,[30] 33 MacArthur Fellows,[30] 29 Turing Award winners,[note 1] as well as 7 Wolf Foundation Prize recipients.[30] Additionally, Stanford is a leading producer nationally of Fulbright Scholars, Marshall Scholars, Gates Cambridge Scholars, Rhodes Scholars, and members of the United States Congress.[52]

  1. ^ a b Casper, Gerhard (October 5, 1995). Die Luft der Freiheit weht—On and Off (Speech). Retrieved August 20, 2021.
  2. ^ a b c "History: Stanford University". Stanford University. Retrieved June 3, 2020.
  3. ^ a b "Chapter 1: The University and the Faculty". Faculty Handbook. Stanford University. September 7, 2016. Archived from the original on May 25, 2017. Retrieved April 26, 2017.
  4. ^ As of August 31, 2023. "Stanford University reports return on investment portfolio, value of endowment". October 12, 2023.
  5. ^ "Finances – Facts". Stanford University. Retrieved February 8, 2024.
  6. ^ a b c d e f "Stanford Facts". Stanford University. Retrieved February 8, 2024.
  7. ^ "Staff – Facts". Stanford University. Retrieved February 8, 2024.
  8. ^ "IPEDS-Stanford University". Retrieved January 16, 2022.
  9. ^ "Color". Stanford Identity Toolkit. Stanford University. Retrieved January 16, 2022.
  10. ^ The Stanford Tree is the mascot of the band but not the university.
  11. ^ "'Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax – 2013' (IRS Form 990)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on June 14, 2018. Retrieved November 15, 2017.
  12. ^ "The founding grant: with amendments, legislation, and court decrees". Stanford Digital Repository. November 26, 1987. Retrieved December 29, 2020.
  13. ^ Cite error: The named reference ARWU was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  14. ^ Examples include:
    1. Selingo, Jeffrey. "Our dangerous obsession with Harvard, Stanford and other elite universities". The Washington Post. "…the Ivy League, along with Stanford, the University of Chicago, Duke, and a few elite public universities such as the University of Michigan, UC-Berkeley, and UNC-Chapel Hill are the pride of the American higher-education system around the world."
    2. Newport, Frank (August 26, 2003). "Harvard Number One University in Eyes of Public Stanford and Yale in second place". Gallup. Archived from the original on September 25, 2013. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
    3. Wong, Alia (September 11, 2018). "At Private Colleges, Students Pay for Prestige". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on February 26, 2021. Retrieved May 17, 2020. Americans tend to think of colleges as falling somewhere on a vast hierarchy based largely on their status and brand recognition. At the top are the Harvards and the Stanfords, with their celebrated faculty, groundbreaking research, and perfectly manicured quads.
  15. ^ Athletics, Stanford (May 24, 2022). "Simply Dominant". Stanford University. Retrieved June 1, 2022.
  16. ^ Conference, Pac-12 (July 2, 2018). "Stanford wins 24th-consecutive Directors' Cup". Pac-12 News. Retrieved June 1, 2019.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  17. ^ Athletics, Stanford (July 1, 2016). "Olympic Medal History". Stanford University Athletics. Archived from the original on August 15, 2021. Retrieved June 19, 2017.
  18. ^ "History – Part 2 (The New Century): Stanford University". Archived from the original on December 20, 2013. Retrieved December 20, 2013.
  19. ^ "History – Part 3 (The Rise of Silicon Valley): Stanford University". Archived from the original on December 20, 2013. Retrieved December 20, 2013.
  20. ^ Mozingo, Louise A. (2011). Pastoral Capitalism: A History of Suburban Corporate Landscapes. Cambridge: MIT Press. p. 166. ISBN 9780262338288. Retrieved February 27, 2023.
  21. ^ Cite error: The named reference Carnegie was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  22. ^ Cite error: The named reference Page was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  23. ^ Cite error: The named reference :1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  24. ^ Cite error: The named reference :2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  25. ^ Devaney, Tim (December 3, 2012). "One University To Rule Them All: Stanford Tops Startup List – ReadWrite". ReadWrite. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  26. ^ "The University Entrepreneurship Report – Alumni of Top Universities Rake in $12.6 Billion Across 559 Deals". CB Insights Research. October 29, 2012. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  27. ^ "Box". Archived from the original on August 7, 2020. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
  28. ^ Silver, Caleb (March 18, 2020). "The Top 20 Economies in the World". Investopedia. Retrieved March 18, 2020.
  29. ^ Krieger, Lisa M. (October 24, 2012). "Stanford alumni's companies combined equal tenth largest economy on the planet". The Mercury News. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  30. ^ a b c d "Stanford Facts: The Stanford Faculty". Stanford University. 2014. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
  31. ^ Elkins, Kathleen (May 18, 2018). "More billionaires went to Harvard than to Stanford, MIT and Yale combined". cnbc. Retrieved November 19, 2021.
  32. ^ "Vinton Cerf – A.M. Turing Award Winner".
  33. ^ "Allen Newell".
  34. ^ "Martin Hellman".
  35. ^ "John E Hopcroft".
  36. ^ "Barbara Liskov".
  37. ^ "Raj Reddy – A.M. Turing Award Winner".
  38. ^ "Ronald L Rivest – A.M. Turing Award Winner".
  39. ^ "Robert E Tarjan – A.M. Turing Award Winner".
  40. ^ "Whitfield Diffie".
  41. ^ "Douglas Engelbart".
  42. ^ "Edward A Feigenbaum – A.M. Turing Award Winner".
  43. ^ "Robert W. Floyd – A.M. Turing Award Winner".
  44. ^ Lee, J.A.N. "Charles Antony Richard (Tony) Hoare". IEEE Computer Society. Archived from the original on September 12, 2014. Retrieved February 9, 2016.
  45. ^ "Alan Kay".
  46. ^ "John McCarthy".
  47. ^ "A J Milner – A.M. Turing Award Winner".
  48. ^ "Amir Pnueli".
  49. ^ "Dana S Scott – A.M. Turing Award Winner".
  50. ^ "Niklaus E. Wirth".
  51. ^ "Andrew C Yao – A.M. Turing Award Winner".
  52. ^

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