United States

Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100

United States of America
Motto: 
Other traditional mottos:
Anthem: "The Star-Spangled Banner"[3]
Orthographic map of the U.S. in North America
World map showing the U.S. and its territories
CapitalWashington, D.C.
38°53′N 77°01′W / 38.883°N 77.017°W / 38.883; -77.017
Largest cityNew York City
40°43′N 74°00′W / 40.717°N 74.000°W / 40.717; -74.000
Official languagesNone at the federal level[a]
National languageEnglish (de facto)
Ethnic groups
By race:
By Hispanic or Latino origin:
Religion
(2021)[9]
Demonym(s)American[b][10]
GovernmentFederal presidential constitutional republic
• President
Joe Biden (D)
Kamala Harris (D)
Nancy Pelosi (D)
John Roberts
LegislatureCongress
Senate
House of Representatives
Independence 
July 4, 1776
March 1, 1781
September 3, 1783
June 21, 1788
August 21, 1959
Area
• Total area
3,796,742 sq mi (9,833,520 km2)[c][11] (3rd)
• Water (%)
4.66[12]
• Land area
3,531,905 sq mi (9,147,590 km2) (4th)
Population
• 2021 estimate
331,893,745[d][13]
• 2020 census
Neutral increase 331,449,281[e][14] (3rd)
• Density
87/sq mi (33.6/km2) (185th)
GDP (PPP)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $25.35 trillion[15] (2nd)
• Per capita
Increase $76,027[15] (9th)
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
Increase $25.35 trillion[15] (1st)
• Per capita
Increase $76,027[15] (8th)
Gini (2020)Negative increase 48.5[16]
high
HDI (2019)Increase 0.926[17]
very high · 17th
CurrencyU.S. dollar ($) (USD)
Time zoneUTC−4 to −12, +10, +11
• Summer (DST)
UTC−4 to −10
Date formatmm/dd/yyyy
Driving sideright[f]
Calling code+1
ISO 3166 codeUS

The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major unincorporated territories, 326 Indian reservations, and nine minor outlying islands.[g] At nearly 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million square kilometers), it is the world's fourth-largest country by land area and third-largest by total area. The United States shares land and maritime borders with Canada to the north and Mexico to the south as well as maritime borders with the Bahamas, Cuba, and Russia.[h] With more than 331 million people, it is the third most populous country in the world. The national capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city and financial center is New York City.

Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago, and European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged from the Thirteen British Colonies established along the East Coast. Disputes with Great Britain over taxation and political representation led to the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), which established the nation's independence. In the late 18th century, the U.S. began expanding territory across North America, gradually obtaining new territories, sometimes through war, frequently displacing Native Americans, and admitting new states. The enslavement of African Americans was legal in the southern United States until the second half of the 19th century, when the American Civil War led to its abolition. The Spanish–American War and World War I established the U.S. as a world power, and the aftermath of World War II left the United States and the Soviet Union as the world's two superpowers. During the Cold War, both countries fought in the Korean and Vietnam War but avoided direct armed conflict. The two nations competed in the Space Race, culminating in the 1969 American spaceflight that first landed humans on the Moon. The Soviet Union's dissolution in 1991 ended the Cold War, leaving the United States as the world's sole superpower. In the post–Cold War era, the United States has engaged in several conflicts in the Middle East.

The United States is a federal presidential constitutional republic with three separate branches of government, including a bicameral legislature. It is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, and other international organizations. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. The United States is a member of multiple military alliances, including NATO, AUKUS, and unilateral alliances with Japan, South Korea, and the Philippines. Considered a melting pot of cultures and ethnicities, its population has been profoundly shaped by centuries of immigration. The United States is a liberal democracy; it ranks high in international measures of economic freedom, quality of life, education, and human rights; and it has low levels of perceived corruption. Unlike other western democracies, the United States lacks universal health care, retains capital punishment, and has high levels of incarceration and inequality.[24]

The United States is a highly developed country, and its economy accounts for approximately a quarter of global GDP and is the world's largest by GDP at market exchange rates. By value, the United States is the world's largest importer and second-largest exporter of goods. Although its population is only 4.2% of the world's total, it holds over 30% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share held by any country. Making up more than a third of global military spending, the United States is the foremost military power in the world and a leading political, cultural, and scientific force.[25]

  1. ^ 36 U.S.C. § 302
  2. ^ a b c "The Great Seal of the United States" (PDF). U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Public Affairs. 2003. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
  3. ^ "An Act To make The Star-Spangled Banner the national anthem of the United States of America". H.R. 14, Act of March 3, 1931. 71st United States Congress.
  4. ^ Cobarrubias 1983, p. 195.
  5. ^ García 2011, p. 167.
  6. ^ "2020 Census Illuminates Racial and Ethnic Composition of the Country". United States Census. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
  7. ^ "Race and Ethnicity in the United States: 2010 Census and 2020 Census". United States Census. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
  8. ^ "A Breakdown of 2020 Census Demographic Data". NPR. August 13, 2021.
  9. ^ "About Three-in-Ten U.S. Adults Are Now Religiously Unaffiliated". Measuring Religion in Pew Research Center's American Trends Panel. Pew Research Center. December 14, 2021. Retrieved December 21, 2021.
  10. ^ Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia and Fact-index: Ohio. 1963. p. 336.
  11. ^ Total area of the 50 states and the District of Columbia, but excluding Puerto Rico and other island territories, per "State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates". Census.gov. August 2010. Retrieved March 31, 2020. reflect base feature updates made in the MAF/TIGER database through August, 2010.
  12. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2015. Retrieved October 11, 2020.
  13. ^ Bureau, US Census. "New Vintage 2021 Population Estimates Available for the Nation, States and Puerto Rico". Census.gov.
  14. ^ "Census Bureau's 2020 Population Count". United States Census. Retrieved April 26, 2021. The 2020 census is as of April 1, 2020.
  15. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2022". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. April 2022. Retrieved April 19, 2022.
  16. ^ "Income inequality in America is the highest it's been since Census Bureau started tracking it, data shows". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 27, 2020.
  17. ^ "Human Development Report 2020: The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. December 15, 2020. Retrieved December 15, 2020.
  18. ^ U.S. State Department, Common Core Document to U.N. Committee on Human Rights, December 30, 2011, Item 22, 27, 80. And U.S. General Accounting Office Report, U.S. Insular Areas: application of the U.S. Constitution Archived November 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, November 1997, pp. 1, 6, 39n. Both viewed April 6, 2016.
  19. ^ https://www.britannica.com/place/United-States-Virgin-Islands. Britannica.com. United States Virgin Islands. Retrieved July 3, 2020. Archived April 29, 2020, at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ https://www.britannica.com/place/Puerto-RicoBritannica.com. Puerto Rico. Retrieved July 3, 2020. InArchived July 2, 2020, at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ Anderson, Ewan W. (2003). International Boundaries: A Geopolitical Atlas. Routledge: New York. ISBN 9781579583750; OCLC 54061586
  22. ^ Charney, Jonathan I., David A. Colson, Robert W. Smith. (2005). International Maritime Boundaries, 5 vols. Hotei Publishing: Leiden.
  23. ^ https://www.pacgeo.org/static/maritimeboundaries/Pacgeo.org. Maritime Boundaries. Retrieved July 3, 2020. Archived July 31, 2020, at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo (2003). Racism without Racists: Color-blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 2–29. ISBN 978-0-7425-1633-5.
    Leigh B. Bienen (2010). Murder and Its Consequences: Essays on Capital Punishment in America (2nd ed.). Northwestern University Press. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-8101-2697-8.
    "The U.S. Health Care System: An International Perspective - DPEAFLCIO". dpeaflcio.org.
    ""Contempt for the poor in US drives cruel policies," says UN expert". OHCHR. June 4, 2018. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  25. ^ Cohen, 2004: History and the Hyperpower
    BBC, April 2008: Country Profile: United States of America
    "Geographical trends of research output". Research Trends. Archived from the original on March 17, 2014. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
    "The top 20 countries for scientific output". Open Access Week. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
    "Granted patents". European Patent Office. Retrieved March 16, 2014.


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