Nord Stream 2

Nord Stream 2
Map of the Nord Stream 2 pipeline
  • Russia
  • Germany
General directioneast–west–south
FromUst-Luga, Russia
Passes throughGulf of Finland and Baltic Sea
ToLubmin near Greifswald, Germany
General information
TypeNatural gas
  • Inoperable (Pipe A)
  • Inactive (Pipe B)
OperatorNord Stream 2 AG
Manufacturer of pipes
  • OMK
  • Chelyabinsk Pipe-Rolling Plant (Chelpipe)
Installer of pipesAllseas (until 21 December 2019)
Pipe layer
Technical information
Length1,230 km (760 mi)
Maximum discharge55 billion m3/a (1.9 trillion cu ft/a)
Diameter1,220 mm (48 in)
No. of compressor stations1
Compressor stationsSlavyanskaya

Nord Stream 2 (GermanEnglish mixed expression for "North Stream 2"; Russian: Северный поток — 2) is a 1,234-kilometre-long (767 mi) natural gas pipeline from Russia to Germany running through the Baltic Sea,[2] financed by Gazprom and several European energy companies. Feasibility studies began in 2011 to expand the Nord Stream 1 line and double annual capacity to 110 billion cubic metres (3.9 trillion cubic feet), with construction beginning in 2018.[3] It was completed in September 2021, but has not yet entered service. Planning and construction of the pipeline were mired in political controversy over fears that Russia would use it, 1 of 23 pipelines between Europe and Russia,[2] for geopolitical advantage with Europe and Ukraine.[4]

German Chancellor Olaf Scholz suspended its certification on 22 February 2022,[5] following official recognition of the Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic by the Russian State Duma and President Putin during the prelude to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.

On 26 September 2022, Danish and Swedish authorities reported a number of explosions at pipes A and B of the Nord Stream 1 pipeline and pipe A of the Nord Stream 2 pipeline, with the resulting damage causing significant gas leaks. The European Union considers the incident to be sabotage of key European energy infrastructure.[6] The Nord Stream explosions also resulted in the worst release of methane gas in human history, with estimates ranging from 100,000 to 400,000 tonnes (220 to 880 million pounds) of methane released into the atmosphere.[7] In October 2022, Russia confirmed that Pipe B of the Nord Stream 2 pipeline escaped destruction, and offered to resume gas supply to Europe (which was promptly declined by Berlin).[8][9][10]

Gas deliveries ceased in September 2022 following the destruction of three of the pipe lines and sanctions linked to the Russian invasion of Ukraine.[11] As of February 2023, there is no conclusive evidence of who carried out the sabotage despite three separate investigations by Denmark, Germany, and Sweden.[12] In June 2023, The Washington Post reported that the United States had intelligence of an Ukrainian plan to attack Nord Stream, and in November 2023 reported that Roman Chervinsky, a colonel in Ukraine's Special Operations Forces, had coordinated the Nord Stream pipeline attack.[13][14]

  1. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Germany halts Nord Stream 2 approval". Deutsche Welle. 22 February 2022.
  2. ^ a b "Gas Infrastructure Europe – System Development Map 2022/2021" (PDF). European Network of Transmission System Operators for Gas (ENTSOG). December 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2022. Retrieved 7 October 2022.
  3. ^ Janjevic, Darko (14 July 2018). "Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline – What is the controversy about?". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  4. ^ "Nord Stream 2 – What is the controversy about?". Deutsche Welle. 14 July 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  5. ^ "Scholz zu Russland-Sanktionen: Deutschland stoppt Nord Stream 2". ZDFheute (in German). Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen. 22 February 2022. Retrieved 24 August 2022.
  6. ^ "Nord Stream leaks: Sabotage to blame, says EU". BBC News. 28 September 2022. Retrieved 29 September 2022.
  7. ^ Benshoff, Laura. "The Nord Stream pipelines have stopped leaking. But the methane emitted broke records". NPR.
  8. ^ "Putin offers to boost gas supplies to Europe via Nord Stream 2". Retrieved 23 February 2023.
  9. ^ Hemicker, Lorenz; Käppel, Janina (5 October 2022). "Russland bestätigt Einsatzbereitschaft von Nord Stream 2" [Russia confirms Nord Stream 2 is operable]. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). Archived from the original on 6 October 2022. Ende September kam es zu Explosionen unter Wasser an der Ostseepipeline. Dabei wurden beide Stränge der Pipeline Nord Stream 1 und ein Strang von Nord Stream 2 leck geschlagen.
  10. ^ "Gazprom: Nord Stream leaks stop, gas supply could resume on single line". Reuters. 3 October 2022. Retrieved 13 October 2022.
  11. ^ "Shutting Down Nord Stream Marks the Point of No Return for Russian Gas". Retrieved 31 January 2023.
  12. ^ Bennetts, Marc (2 February 2023). "Who attacked the Nord Stream pipelines?". The Times. London. Retrieved 2 February 2023.
  13. ^ "US had intelligence of Ukrainian plan to attack Nord Stream project, Washington Post reports". Reuters. 6 June 2023. Retrieved 11 November 2023.
  14. ^ Harris, Shane; Khurshudyan, Isabelle (11 November 2023). "Ukrainian military officer coordinated Nord Stream pipeline attack". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 11 November 2023.

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