Wartime sexual violence

Monument to the Condottiero Giovanni dalle Bande Nere depicting a man kidnapping a woman (Piazza San Lorenzo, Florence)

Wartime sexual violence is rape or other forms of sexual violence committed by combatants during armed conflict, war, or military occupation often as spoils of war, but sometimes, particularly in ethnic conflict, the phenomenon has broader sociological motives. Wartime sexual violence may also include gang rape and rape with objects. A war crime, it is distinguished from sexual harassment, sexual assaults and rape committed amongst troops in military service.[1][2][3]

During war and armed conflict, rape is frequently used as a means of psychological warfare in order to humiliate the enemy. Wartime sexual violence may occur in a variety of situations, including institutionalized sexual slavery, wartime sexual violence associated with specific battles or massacres, as well as individual or isolated acts of sexual violence.

Rape can also be recognized as genocide when committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a targeted group. International legal instruments for prosecuting perpetrators for genocide were developed in the 1990s, with the Akayesu case of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda being widely considered as a precedent.[4] However, these legal instruments have so far only been used for international conflicts, thus putting the burden of proof in citing the international nature of conflict in order for prosecution to proceed.

  1. ^ "TCB Finance – UK Finance and Lending Blog".
  2. ^ Benedict, Helen (6 May 2009). "The Nation: The Plight of Women Soldiers". NPR. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
  3. ^ Benedict, Helen (13 August 2008). "Why Soldiers Rape – Culture of misogyny, illegal occupation, fuel sexual violence in military". In These Times. Archived from the original on 18 May 2019. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
  4. ^ Haddad, H.N. Hum Rights Rev (2011). "Mobilizing the Will to Prosecute: Crimes of Rape at the Yugoslav and Rwandan Tribunals". Human Rights Review. 12: 109–132. doi:10.1007/s12142-010-0163-x. S2CID 55172255.

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