Hate crime

A hate crime (also known as a bias-motivated crime or bias crime)[1] is a prejudice-motivated crime which occurs when a perpetrator targets a victim because of their membership (or perceived membership) of a certain social group or racial demographic.

Examples of such groups can include, and are almost exclusively limited to ethnicity, disability, language, nationality, physical appearance, age, religion, gender identity, or sexual orientation.[2][3][4] Non-criminal actions that are motivated by these reasons are often called "bias incidents".

"Hate crime" generally refers to criminal acts which are seen to have been motivated by bias against one or more of the social groups listed above, or by bias against their derivatives. Incidents may involve physical assault, homicide, damage to property, bullying, harassment, verbal abuse (which includes slurs) or insults, mate crime, or offensive graffiti or letters (hate mail).[5]

A hate crime law is a law intended to deter bias-motivated violence.[6] Hate crime laws are distinct from laws against hate speech: hate crime laws enhance the penalties associated with conduct which is already criminal under other laws, while hate speech laws criminalize a category of speech.

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the violence against people of Asian origin significantly increased on the background of accusation of spreading the virus.[7][8][9] In May 2020, the Polish-based "NEVER AGAIN" Association published its report titled "The Virus of Hate: The Brown Book of Epidemic", that documented numerous acts of racism, xenophobia, and discrimination that occurred in the wake of coronavirus pandemic, as well as cases of spreading hate speech and conspiracy theories about the epidemic by the Alternative Right (Alt-Right).[10]

  1. ^ "Hate crime". Dictionary.com. Also called bias crime.
  2. ^ Stotzer, R. (June 2007). "Comparison of Hate Crime Rates Across Protected and Unprotected Groups" (PDF). Williams Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 17 March 2012. "A hate crime or bias motivated crime occurs when the perpetrator of the crime intentionally selects the victim because of their membership in a certain group."
  3. ^ "Methodology". FBI.
  4. ^ Streissguth, Tom (2003). Hate Crimes (Library in a Book), p. 3. ISBN 0-8160-4879-7.
  5. ^ "Home Office | Hate crime". Archived from the original on 26 November 2005.
  6. ^ Meyer, Doug (2014). "Resisting Hate Crime Discourse: Queer and Intersectional Challenges to Neoliberal Hate Crime Laws". Critical Criminology. 22: 113–125. doi:10.1007/s10612-013-9228-x. S2CID 143546829.
  7. ^ "They beat, cough and spit. Racist incidents are on the rise during the epidemic". gazetapl. Retrieved 2021-09-28.
  8. ^ "Covid 'hate crimes' against Asian Americans on rise". BBC News. 2021-05-21. Retrieved 2021-09-28.
  9. ^ "France's Asian community fights back against racist attacks during pandemic". France 24. 2021-04-04. Retrieved 2021-09-28.
  10. ^ "The Virus of Hate: Brown Book of the Epidemic" (PDF). NEVER AGAIN Association.

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