Ku Klux Klan

Ku Klux Klan
Flag of the Ku Klux Klan.svg
In existence
  • First Klan: 1865–1872
  • Second Klan: 1915–1944
  • Third Klan: 1950–present
Members
  • First Klan: Unknown
  • Second Klan: c. 3 million – 6 million[1]
    (peaked in 1924–1925)
  • Third Klan: c. 5,000–8,000[2]
Political ideologies After 1915: After 1950:
Political positionFar-right
Espoused religion

The Ku Klux Klan (/ˌk klʌks ˈklæn, ˌkj-/),[c] commonly shortened to the KKK or the Klan, is an American white supremacist, right-wing terrorist, and hate group whose primary targets are African Americans, Jews, Latinos, Asian Americans, Catholics, and Native Americans[38][39] as well as immigrants, leftists, homosexuals,[40][41] Muslims,[42] abortion providers[43][44] and atheists.[45][46]

The Klan has existed in three distinct eras. Each has advocated extremist reactionary positions such as white nationalism, anti-immigration and—especially in later iterations—Nordicism,[47][48] antisemitism, anti-Catholicism, Prohibition, right-wing populism, anti-communism, homophobia,[49][50][51][52][53] Islamophobia, anti-progressivism and anti-atheism. The first Klan used terrorism—both physical assault and murder—against politically active Black people and their allies in the Southern United States in the late 1860s. The third Klan used murders and bombings from the late 1940s to the early 1960s to achieve its aims. All three movements have called for the "purification" of American society, and are all considered far-right extremist organizations.[54][55][56][57] In each era, membership was secret and estimates of the total were highly exaggerated by both friends and enemies.

The first Klan was established in the wake of the American Civil War and was a defining organization of the Reconstruction era. Organized in numerous chapters across the Southern United States, federal law enforcement suppressed it around 1871. It sought to overthrow the Republican state governments in the South, especially by using voter intimidation and targeted violence against African-American leaders. Each chapter was autonomous and highly secretive about membership and plans. Members made their own, often colorful, costumes: robes, masks and conical hats, designed to be terrifying and to hide their identities.[58][59]

The second Klan started in 1915 as a small group in Georgia. It grew after 1920 and flourished nationwide in the early and mid-1920s, including urban areas of the Midwest and West. Taking inspiration from D. W. Griffith's 1915 silent film The Birth of a Nation, which mythologized the founding of the first Klan, it employed marketing techniques and a popular fraternal organization structure. Rooted in local Protestant communities, it sought to maintain white supremacy, often took a pro-Prohibition and pro-compulsory public education[60][61][62] stance, and it opposed Jews, while also stressing its opposition to the alleged political power of the pope and the Catholic Church. This second Klan flourished both in the south and northern states; it was funded by initiation fees and selling its members a standard white costume. The chapters did not have dues. It used K-words which were similar to those used by the first Klan, while adding cross burnings and mass parades to intimidate others. It rapidly declined in the latter half of the 1920s.

The third and current manifestation of the KKK emerged after 1950, in the form of localized and isolated groups that use the KKK name. They have focused on opposition to the civil rights movement, often using violence and murder to suppress activists. This manifestation is classified as a hate group by the Anti-Defamation League and the Southern Poverty Law Center.[63] As of 2016, the Anti-Defamation League puts total KKK membership nationwide at around 3,000, while the Southern Poverty Law Center puts it at 6,000 members total.[64]

The second and third incarnations of the Ku Klux Klan made frequent references to a false mythologized perception of America's "Anglo-Saxon" blood, hearkening back to 19th-century nativism.[65] Although members of the KKK swear to uphold Christian morality, Christian denominations widely denounce them.[66]

  1. ^ McVeigh, Rory. "Structural Incentives for Conservative Mobilization: Power Devaluation and the Rise of the Ku Klux Klan, 1915–1925". Social Forces, Vol. 77, No. 4 (June 1999), p. 1463.
  2. ^ "Ku Klux Klan". Southern Poverty Law Center. Archived from the original on July 23, 2013. Retrieved February 7, 2013.
  3. ^ Blow, Charles M. (January 7, 2016). "Gun Control and White Terror". The New York Times. Retrieved March 3, 2022.
  4. ^ Al-Khattar, Aref M. (2003). Religion and terrorism: an interfaith perspective. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. pp. 21, 30, 55.
  5. ^ Michael, Robert, and Philip Rosen. Dictionary of antisemitism from the earliest times to the present. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, 1997, p. 267.
  6. ^ Pegram 2011, pp. 47–88.
  7. ^ Dibranco, Alex (February 3, 2020). "The Long History of the Anti-Abortion Movement's Links to White Supremacists". The Nation. In 1985, the KKK began creating wanted posters listing personal information for abortion providers (doxing before the Internet age) ... Groups like the Confederate Knights of the Ku Klux Klan trafficked in rhetoric that mirrored that of the anti-abortion movement—with an anti-Semitic twist: 'More than ten million white babies have been murdered through Jewish-engineered legalized abortion since 1973 here in America and more than a million per year are being slaughtered this way.'
  8. ^ "Ku Klux Klan distributes homophobic, antisemitic flyers targeting school board in Virginia". Archived from the original on June 30, 2021. Police in Virginia are investigating a series of violently antisemitic and homophobic flyers targeting a local school board that were distributed by a white supremacist group affiliated with the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). Flyers denouncing the school board in Fairfax, Va., as 'Jew-inspired, communist, queer-loving sex fiends violating the words of the Holy Bible' were discovered on Wednesday
  9. ^ "Ku Klux Klan rallies against homosexuals in Lancaster". United Press International. August 24, 1991. Archived from the original on July 4, 2021.
  10. ^ "Ku Klux Klan supports Alabama chief Justice Rory Moore's attempts to stop gay marriage". Independent. February 13, 2015. Archived from the original on July 4, 2021.
  11. ^ "Ku Klux Klan distributes anti-transgender fliers in at least 1 Alabama neighborhood". May 24, 2016.
  12. ^ "KKK Allegedly Threatens Gay Political Candidate in Florida". NBC News.
  13. ^ "Ku Klux Klan plans rally to support anti-gay counseling student". LGBTQ Nation.
  14. ^ "KKK to Floridians: End AIDS by 'bashing gays'". LGBTQ Nation.
  15. ^ "Ku Klux Klan Rallies In Ellijay, GA – Condemns Homosexuals, Illegal Immigrants, Black Americans and Others". September 13, 2010.
  16. ^ "KKK members protest LGBTQ pride march in Florence". June 13, 2017.
  17. ^ "Ku Klux Klan plans rally to support anti-gay counseling student". LGBTQ Nation. Archived from the original on July 13, 2022. Retrieved October 5, 2010.
  18. ^ "Mississippi KKK leader defends post-Orlando anti-gay leaflets". CBS News. Archived from the original on July 28, 2022. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
  19. ^ "Klan leader calls for death for homosexuals". Tampa Bay Times. July 13, 1992. Archived from the original on July 28, 2022. 50 Klansmen, skinheads and supporters proclaimed gays and lesbians should receive the death penalty.
  20. ^ "Anti-Semitic and racist KKK fliers dropped in Philadelphia suburb". The Times of Israel.
  21. ^ "KKK drops antisemitic fliers in Florida to recruit members". October 18, 2017.
  22. ^ "KKK Flyers Threatening Blacks And Jews Found In Florida". The Forward. October 10, 2017.
  23. ^ "Antisemitic, racist KKK fliers dropped in Cherry Hill, NJ". October 16, 2018.
  24. ^ "Racist, antisemitic fliers dropped in Virginia neighborhood before MLK Day". Archived from the original on June 12, 2021.
  25. ^ "Ku Klux Klan extends antisemitic campaign to Argentina". Jewish Telegraph Agency. Archived from the original on July 28, 2022.
  26. ^ Kristin Dimick. "The Ku Klux Klan and the Anti-Catholic School Bills of Washington and Oregon". Archived from the original on May 14, 2022.
  27. ^ Philip N. Racine (1973). "The Ku Klux Klan, Anti-Catholicism, and Atlanta's Board of Education, 1916-1927". The Georgia Historical Quarterly. Georgia Historical Society. 57 (1): 63–75. JSTOR 40579872. Archived from the original on July 28, 2022.
  28. ^ Christine K. Erickson. "The Ku Klux Klan confronts the Catholics 1923-1929". University of Montana. Archived from the original on July 28, 2022.
  29. ^ "Ku Klux Klan Fliers Promoting Islamophobia Found In Washington State Neighborhood". March 2, 2015.
  30. ^ "Alabama KKK actively recruiting to 'fight the spread of Islam'". December 10, 2015.
  31. ^ "In the Army and the Klan, he hated Muslims". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 13, 2022. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
  32. ^ "KKK member convicted in plot to kill Muslims, Obama with death ray". Times of Israel. Archived from the original on July 24, 2022. Retrieved August 22, 2016.
  33. ^ "Mosque Receives Threatening Letter Signed By KKK". Newsweek. Archived from the original on July 24, 2022. Retrieved September 2, 2021.
  34. ^ "Accused of threatening Mosque, man also contacted KKK". Local 10. Archived from the original on July 24, 2022. Retrieved March 19, 2019. Gerald Wallace said he liked KKK's stance on Muslims, in newly released video
  35. ^ "Mosques vandalized with KKK graffiti". The Mirror. Archived from the original on July 24, 2022. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  36. ^ Baker 2011.
  37. ^ Barkun, pp. 60–85.
  38. ^ Lowery, Malinda Maynor. "During Civil Rights Era, Native American Communities in the South Armed Themselves Against the Klan". Scalawag.
  39. ^ "Campaign ad recalls defeat of KKK cross-burning by Native Americans who 'refused to be afraid'". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved October 31, 2021 – via www.washingtonpost.com.
  40. ^ "KKK targets LGBT ordinance in Florida". Washington Blade. November 24, 2015. Archived from the original on August 1, 2022. The Ku Klux Klan has distributed fliers against a proposed ordinance that would ban discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity.
  41. ^ Andrea Castillo (June 4, 2015). "Fresno GLBT Pride Parade a celebration of culture, history". The Fresno Bee. Archived from the original on June 17, 2021. Two dozen Klansmen showed up in white robes. A Bee article quoted their spokesman, Jim Cheney, saying, “We can’t hang them or tar and feather them anymore, but we can do other things.” Members of the group continued making appearances at the festival through 1998.
  42. ^ Jaime Ritter (December 9, 2015). "Anti-Muslim KKK fliers pop up in Alabama". CBS42. Archived from the original on August 1, 2022. The Alabama chapter of the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR) says that the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) is recruiting in Alabama to “fight the spread of Islam in our country.”
  43. ^ "Klan Plans Protests At Abortion Clinics". Los Angeles Times. August 21, 1994. Archived from the original on August 3, 2022. Ku Klux Klansmen plan to demonstrate at abortion clinics in Pensacola within the next month, a spokesman for the group said Saturday. The group plans to picket against abortion and the use of federal marshals to guard the clinics.
  44. ^ Moira Donegan (January 24, 2022). "White nationalists are flocking to the US anti-abortion movement". The Guardian. Archived from the original on August 3, 2022. In 1985, the KKK began circulating “Wanted” posters featuring the photos and personal information of abortion providers. The posters were picked up by the anti-choice terrorist group Operation Rescue in the early 90s.
  45. ^ Bowley, Nicoli. 'Ten Dollars to Hate Somebody': Hispanic Communities and the Ku Klux Klan in Colorado, 1917-1925 (Thesis). Archived from the original on October 25, 2021. Retrieved January 13, 2022.
  46. ^ Baudouin 1997, p.23: "Bigots began to howl more loudly than in years, and a new Klan leader began to beat the drums of anti-Black, anti-union, anti-Jew, anti-Catholic and anti-Communist hatred. This man was Samuel Green, an Atlanta doctor.".
  47. ^ Petersen, William. Against the Stream: Reflections of an Unconventional Demographer. Transaction Publishers. p. 89. ISBN 978-1412816663. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
  48. ^ Pratt Guterl, Matthew (2009). The Color of Race in America, 1900–1940. Harvard University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0674038059.
  49. ^ John Skipper (December 28, 2005). "Charles city Klansman plans to protest gay marriage". Courier Lee News Service. Archived from the original on August 3, 2022.
  50. ^ Nicole Hensley (February 18, 2015). "KKK calls on members to protest Alabama's same-sex marriages". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on August 3, 2022. Mississippi's top Ku Klux Klan leader is rallying his klansmen to protest Alabama's overturned gay marriage ban, but to leave their hoods at home. Brent Waller, imperial wizard for the state's United Dixie White Knights, took to Stormfront, an online white supremacist forum, to "salute" Alabama Supreme Court Justice Roy Moore's refusal to "bow to the yoke of Federal tyranny," he wrote.
  51. ^ Sara Isaac (June 26, 1988). "Klansmen Picket Gay Rights Rally". Orlando Sentinel. “Every American has a right to worship and believe as he sees fit. . . . But they homosexuals are discrediting the U.S. Constitution. They're taking advantage of their rights," said one Klansman, who refused to be identified. "They should be dealt with accordingly," he said. The counterdemonstration was organized by the Invisible Empire, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, based in Shelton, Conn. Klansmen wore the rubber gloves to symbolize their belief that AIDS is primarily a homosexual disease that God created to wipe out the country's homosexual population.
  52. ^ "Anti-gay KKK newsletters left at Miss. homes". 11 Alive. June 20, 2016.
  53. ^ Polly Ross Hughes (October 27, 2005). "Prop. 2 supporters avoid anti-gay KKK rally". Houston Chronicle. Archived from the original on July 28, 2022.
  54. ^ McVeigh 2009.
  55. ^ Matthew N. Lyons, Right-Wing Populism in America (2000), ch. 3, 5, 13.
  56. ^ Chalmers 2003, p. 163.
  57. ^ Quarles 1999, p. 100.
  58. ^ See, e.g., Klanwatch Project (2011), illustrations, pp. 9–10.
  59. ^ Parsons 2005, pp. 811–836.
  60. ^ Dimick, Kristin. The Ku Klux Klan and the Anti-Catholic School Bills of Washington and Oregon. Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project. Retrieved March 3, 2022.
  61. ^ Toy, Eckard. Ku Klux Klan. Oregon Encyclopedia. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
  62. ^ Mandel, Nicole L. (April 26, 2012). The Quiet Bigotry of Oregon's Compulsory Public Education Act. Portland State University. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
  63. ^ Both the Anti-Defamation League Archived October 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine and the Southern Poverty Law Center Archived February 19, 2010, at the Wayback Machine include it in their lists of hate groups. See also Brian Levin, "Cyberhate: A Legal and Historical Analysis of Extremists' Use of Computer Networks in America", in Perry, Barbara (ed.), Hate and Bias Crime: A Reader, Routledge, 2003, p. 112.
  64. ^ "At 150, KKK sees opportunities in US political trends". Archived from the original on July 1, 2016. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
  65. ^ Newton 2001.
  66. ^ Perlmutter, Philip (1999). Legacy of Hate: A Short History of Ethnic, Religious, and Racial Prejudice in America. M. E. Sharpe. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-7656-0406-4. Kenneth T. Jackson, in his The Ku Klux Klan in the City 1915–1930, reminds us that 'virtually every' Protestant denomination denounced the KKK, but that most KKK members were not 'innately depraved or anxious to subvert American institutions', but rather believed their membership in keeping with 'one-hundred percent Americanism' and Christian morality.


Cite error: There are <ref group=lower-alpha> tags or {{efn}} templates on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist|group=lower-alpha}} template or {{notelist}} template (see the help page).


From Rich X Search The Next Generation Search Engine

Copyright 2022 Rich X Search