This article needs to be updated.(January 2020)
|Part of a series on|
Terrorism in Russia has a long history starting from the time of the Russian Empire. Terrorism, in the modern sense, means violence against civilians to achieve political or ideological objectives by creating extreme fear.
Terrorism was an important tool used by Marxist revolutionaries in the early 20th century to disrupt the social, political, and economic system and enable rebels to bring down the Tzarist government. Terrorist tactics, such as hostage-taking, were widely used by the Soviet secret agencies, most notably during the Red Terror and Great Terror campaigns, against the population of their own country, according to Karl Kautsky and other historians of Bolshevism.
Starting from the end of the 20th century, significant terrorist activity has taken place in Russia, most notably the Budyonnovsk hospital hostage crisis, the 1999 apartment bombings, the Moscow theater hostage crisis and the Beslan school siege. Many more acts of terrorism have been committed in major Russian cities, as well as the regions of Chechnya and Dagestan.
Russia has been declared a state sponsor of terrorism or terrorist state by Czechia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Ukraine, the European Parliament, and the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe as a result of its actions during the invasion of Ukraine in 2022.
The divergent assessments of the same evidence on such an important issue shocks a leading terrorism researcher. 'The notion of terrorism is fairly straightforward – it is ideologically or politically motivated violence directed against civilian targets.'" said Professor Martin Rudner, director of the Canadian Centre of Intelligence and Security Studies at Ottawa's Carleton University.