White supremacy

White supremacy or white supremacism is the belief that white people are superior to those of other races and thus should dominate them.[1] The belief favors the maintenance and defense of any power and privilege held by white people. White supremacy has roots in the now-discredited doctrine of scientific racism and was a key justification for European colonialism.[2]

As a political ideology, it imposes and maintains cultural, social, political, historical, and/or institutional domination by white people and non-white supporters. In the past, this ideology had been put into effect through socioeconomic and legal structures such as the Atlantic slave trade, Jim Crow laws in the United States, the White Australia policies from the 1890s to the mid-1970s, and apartheid in South Africa.[3][4] This ideology is also today present among neo-Confederates.

White supremacy underlies a spectrum of contemporary movements including white nationalism, white separatism, neo-Nazism, and the Christian Identity movement.[5] In the United States, white supremacy is primarily associated with the Ku Klux Klan (KKK), Aryan Nations, and the White American Resistance movement, all of which are also considered to be antisemitic.[citation needed] The Proud Boys, despite claiming non-association with white supremacy, have been described in academic contexts as being such.[6] In recent years, websites such as Twitter, Reddit, and Stormfront, and the presidential campaign of Donald Trump, have contributed to an increased activity and interest in white supremacy.[7][8][9][10][11]

Different forms of white supremacy have different conceptions of who is considered white (though the exemplar is generally light-skinned, blond-haired, and blue-eyed—traits most common in northern Europe, which are pseudoscientifically viewed as being part of an Aryan race), and not all white supremacist organizations agree on who is their greatest enemy.[12] Different groups of white supremacists identify various racial, ethnic, religious, and other enemies,[13] most commonly those of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, Indigenous peoples of the Americas and Oceania, Asians, multiracial people, Middle Eastern people, Jews,[14][15][16] Muslims, and LGBTQ+ people.[17][18][19][20]

In academic usage, particularly in critical race theory or intersectionality, "white supremacy" can also refer to a social system in which white people enjoy structural advantages (privilege) over other ethnic groups, on both a collective and individual level, despite formal legal equality.[21][22][23][24][25]

  1. ^ John Philip Jenkins (April 13, 2021). "white supremacy". britannica. Retrieved August 14, 2022.
  2. ^ American Association of Physical Anthropologists (March 27, 2019). "AAPA Statement on Race and Racism". American Association of Physical Anthropologists. Retrieved June 19, 2020. Instead, the Western concept of race must be understood as a classification system that emerged from, and in support of, European colonialism, oppression, and discrimination.
  3. ^ Wildman, Stephanie M. (1996). Privilege Revealed: How Invisible Preference Undermines America. NYU Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-8147-9303-9.
  4. ^ Helms, Janet (2016). "An election to save White Heterosexual Male Privilege" (PDF). Latina/o Psychology Today. 3 (2): 6–7. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 14, 2017.
  5. ^ Brody, Richard (April 9, 2021). ""Exterminate All the Brutes," Reviewed: A Vast, Agonizing History of White Supremacy". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on April 9, 2021. Retrieved January 28, 2022.
  6. ^ Kutner, Samantha (2020). "Swiping Right: The Allure of Hyper Masculinity and Cryptofascism for Men Who Join the Proud Boys" (PDF). International Centre for Counter-Terrorism: 1. JSTOR resrep25259.
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  12. ^ Flint, Colin (2004). Spaces of Hate: Geographies of Discrimination and Intolerance in the U.S.A. Routledge. p. 53. ISBN 0-415-93586-5. Although white racist activists must adopt a political identity of whiteness, the flimsy definition of whiteness in modern culture poses special challenges for them. In both mainstream and white supremacist discourse, to be white is to be distinct from those marked as nonwhite, yet the placement of the distinguishing line has varied significantly in different times and places.
  13. ^ Flint, Colin (2004). Spaces of Hate: Geographies of Discrimination and Intolerance in the U.S.A. Routledge. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-415-93586-9. Although white racist activists must adopt a political identity of whiteness, the flimsy definition of whiteness in modern culture poses special challenges for them. In both mainstream and white supremacist discourse, to be white is distinct from those marked as non-white, yet the distinguishing line placement has varied significantly in different times and places.
  14. ^ "'Jews will not replace us': Why white supremacists go after Jews". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 13, 2022. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
  15. ^ "How Anti-Semitism Is Tied To White Nationalism". National Public Radio. Archived from the original on July 13, 2022. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
  16. ^ "Antisemitism Is Driving White Supremacist Terror In The United States". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on July 13, 2022. Retrieved January 19, 2022.
  17. ^ "Why Are So Many White Nationalists 'Virulently Anti-LGBT'?". National Broadcasting Company. Archived from the original on July 13, 2022. Retrieved August 21, 2017.
  18. ^ "Why are white nationalist groups targeting LGBTQ groups?". National Public Radio. Archived from the original on July 13, 2022. Retrieved June 19, 2022.
  19. ^ "White supremacy's rigid views on gender and sexuality". Cable News Network. Archived from the original on July 13, 2022. Retrieved June 15, 2022.
  20. ^ "Knoxville Pridefest parade: White nationalists to protest". Knoxnews. Archived from the original on July 13, 2022. Retrieved June 13, 2018.
  21. ^ Ansley, Frances Lee (1989). "Stirring the Ashes: Race, Class and the Future of Civil Rights Scholarship". Cornell Law Review. 74: 993ff.
  22. ^ Ansley, Frances Lee (June 29, 1997). "White supremacy (and what we should do about it)". In Richard Delgado; Jean Stefancic (eds.). Critical white studies: Looking behind the mirror. Temple University Press. p. 592. ISBN 978-1-56639-532-8.
  23. ^ Cite error: The named reference :11 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  24. ^ Cite error: The named reference :12 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  25. ^ Cite error: The named reference :13 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

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